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Course Agenda (Course Code 100)

 

STAND ALONE POWER SYSTEMS_
DESIGN AND INSTALLATION COURSE
COURSE CODE 100

Course Agenda

Note: This course is for design and installation.  Sessions relating to design e are marked with a (D), relating to installation are marked with an (I).
At the start of each day and sometimes immediately after lunch exercises are undertaken based on the previous work.

Day One

08:00-08:15: Session One Part A: Introduction    (D) & (I)
08:15-08:30: Session One Part B: Scope of Course    (D) & (I)
08:30-9:00: Session One Part C: Safety Orientation   (D) & (I)
9:00-10:00: Session One Part D: PV Overview (D) & (I)

 

10:00-10:20: break

10:20-12:00: Session Two: Solar Resource (D) & (I)

  • Irradiance
  • Geometric Effects
  • Altitude and Azimuth
  • Sunpath Diagram
  • Magnetic North & True North
  • .Atmospheric Effects
  • Direct and Diffuse Radiation
  • Air Mass
  • Irradiation and Peak Sun Hours
  • Solar Radiation Data                       
  • Solar Altitude

12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-14:00: Session Three: Electrical Basics (D) & (I) 

  • Polarity
  • Conductors
  • Insulators
  • Semi-Conductors
  • Potential Difference
  • Volts
  • Current
  • Amperes
  • Magnetic Effect
  • Resistance
  • Ohms (Ω)
  • Circuits
  • Fuses and Circuit Breakers
  • Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC)
  • Electromagnetism
  • Ohms Law, Power and Energy
  • Licencing requirements
  • Electric Shock
  • Series Circuits
  • Parallel Circuits
  • Combination Series/Parallel Circuits

14:00-15:20: Session Three part B: System Components PV Cells after lunch
                                                & PV Modules (D) & (I)

  • Characteristics of Solar Cells
  • Typical IV curve for Solar Cells
  • Power Curve of the Solar Cells
  • Factors which effect the performance of solar cells
    • Temperature
    • Irradiance
  • Types of Solar Cells
    • Mono Crystalline
    • Poly Crystalline
    • Amorphous
  • Performance of Solar Cells
    • Efficiency
    • Fill Factor
  • Creating a Module
  • Solar Panels (PV Modules)
  • Self Regulating Panels (Modules)
  • Commercial Modules
  • Arrays
  • Electrical Protection
  • Bypass diodes
  • Blocking diodes
  • Selecting Diodes
  • Module Reliability
  • Load on Solar Module

 

15:00-15:20: Break

15:20- 16:30: Session Four: System Components: Batteries    (D) & (I)

  • Flooded Lead Acid Batteries
  • Valve Regulated Lead Acid  ( VRLA )
    • Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) –
    • Gelled Electrolyte.
  • Other Types of Batteries
    • Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd)
    • Vanadium redox battery and zinc-bromine battery.
  • Characteristics of Batteries suitable for Stand Alone Systems
  • Energy Storage in Batteries
  • Battery Capacity
  • Charging Rate
  • Cut off voltage
  • Depth of Discharge (D.O.D)
  • Daily Depth of Discharge (D.O.D)
  • Efficiency of a Battery
  • Discharge Rate
  • Equalisation
  • Gassing
  • Self Discharge Rate
  • State of Charge (SOC)
  • Specific Gravity
  • Sulphation
  • Battery Voltage
  • Charging after deep discharge
  • Determining State of Charge
    • Specific Gravity
    • Open Circuit Voltage
    • Discharging and Charging Voltages
  • Maintenance of Batteries
  • Effect of Temperature
  • Combining Batteries
  • Paralleling Batteries
  • Battery Selection Criteria

Day Two

08:00-9:00: Session Five Part A: Exercises based on previous days work

09:00-10:00: Session Five Part B: System Components: Batteries Continued    (D) & (I)

 

10:00-10:20: Break

10:45-12:00: Session Six: Workshop: Testing Batteries (D) & (I) 
Workshop: Safety Clothing to be worn when working with wet lead batteries
Workshop: Testing and measuring voltage of cells
Workshop: Using hydrometer to measure Specific Gravity

 
12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-15:00: Session Seven: Workshops System Components (D) & (I) did after lunch
    Workshop: Testing and measuring solar module output
                       Solar Pathfinder
 
                       
15:00-15:20: Break

15:20-16:30: Session Eight: System Components -Controllers (D) & (I)

  • Purpose of Control Equipment
  • The Charge/Discharge Cycle
  • Overcharge Protection
  • Types of Regulators
    • Switching and Linear Regulators.
    • Shunt and Series Regulators.
  • Types of Switching Regulators
    • Single Stage Voltage Sensing Regulator
    • Multi-Stage Switching Regulator
  • Switch mode regulators (Similar to linear regulators)
    • Pulse Width Modulation
    • The Regulation Cycle
      • Boost
      • .Absorption
      • Float
      • Equalise
  • Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) – Switch mode regulator
  • Other Regulator Features
    • Over Discharge Protection
    • Temperature Compensation
    • Monitoring
  • Installation of Regulators
  • Specifying a Regulator

 

Day Three

08:00-10:00: Session Nine: Exercises based on previous days work

10:00-10:20: Break

10:20-12:00: Session Ten: Inverters (D) & (I)

  • AC OR DC?
  • Purpose of Inverters
  • Advantages of DC and AC Electricity
  • Measuring AC
  • Frequency (Hertz)
  • Harmonic Distortion
  • Power Factor
    • Resistive Loads
    • Inductive Loads
    • Power Factor Corrected Inductive Loads
    • Electronic Loads
    • High Power Factor Electronic Loads
  • Types of Inverters: How the DC is converted to AC
    • Rotary Inverter
      • The Basic Solid State Inverter
      • Switch Mode Inverters
    • Output Waveform
      • Square Wave Inverters
      • Modified (Stepped) Square Wave Inverters
      • Sine Wave Inverter
      • Bi-directional Inverters ( Battery Charging Inverters )
  • Protection Circuits
    • Reverse Polarity
    • Overloads
    • Over Temperature
    • High and Low Battery Voltage
  • Inverter Power
  • Surge Capacity
  • Ratings of Inverters
  • Auto-start / Demand Start Feature
  • Isolation
  • RFI

12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-15:00: Session Eleven: Workshop Inverter Demonstrations (D) & (I)
Workshop: Efficiency of Sine Wave Inverter vs Square Wave Inverter
Workshop: Effect of Wave shape as a result of various loads- Sine wave and Square Wave Inverter

15:00-15:20: Break

 

15:20 – 16:30: Discussion/ close

 

Day Four

08:00-10:00:   Session Thirteen: Exercises based on previous days work

10:00-10:20: Break

10:20-12:00: Session Fourteen: Load Assessment (D) 

  • Energy Efficiency- brief overview
  • Passive Solar Design – Brief overview
  • Assessing the Customer’s Energy Needs
    • Heating
    • Cooling
    • Lighting
    • Other services
  • What energy sources are typically used?
  • Energy Source and Energy Source Table (AS4509.2 Table B1)
  • Estimating the Electrical Energy Load
    • Completing the DC Load Assessment Form
    • Completing the AC Load Assessment Form

12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-15:00: Session Fifteen:  Load Assessment Exercises (D) 

15:00-15:20: Break

15:20-17:00: Session Sixteen:  System Sizing Part 1 (D) 

  • Introduction
  • Resource Assessment
  • Average Daily Energy Usage
  • Total A-hr Demand per Day
  • Determination of System Voltage
  • Sizing and Specifying Batteries
    • Based on Daily load, Days of Autonomy, Maximum DOD
    • Temperature Correction Factor
    • Maximum or Surge Demand
    • Maximum Charging Current
    • Daily Depth of Discharge
    • Number of Parallel Battery Strings
    • Allowing for future load growth

Day Five

08:00-10:00: Session Seventeen: Exercises based on previous days work

10:00-10:20: Break

10:20-12:00: Session Eighteen:  System Design Part 2- (D) 

  •  Specifying an Inverter
    • Unidirectional Inverters
    • Inverter – Chargers
    • Interactive- Inverters
  • System Losses
  • Sizing and Specifying Renewable Energy Components
    • Systems without a back-up generating set
    • Determination of Worst Month
  • Photovoltaic Array
    • Recommended Tilt Angles
    • Derating of PV Array
    • Determining Size of Array Required when using standard regulator
    • Determining Size of Array Required when using Maximum Power Point Tracker

12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-15:00: Session Nineteen:  System Design Exercises (D) 

 

15:00-15:20: Break

15:20-16:30: Session twenty:  Session Twenty:  System Design- Continued (D) 
 

 

 

Finish for The Day

 

 

Day Six

On site system installation- arrangements explained during the first few days

Day Seven

08:00-10:00: Session Twenty One: Exercises on previous weeks work on system sizing

10:00-10:20: Break

10:20-12:00: Session Twenty Two Part A: System Wiring (D) & (I)

  • Introduction
  • Cable Sizing
  • Line Losses (Voltage Drop)
  • Permissible voltage drop in conductors
    • Using a table of values which shows the voltage drop for different cables under different current conditions.
  • Excessive Current
  • Circuit Protection
  • Sizing main battery fuses:
  • Battery Isolation

Session Twenty Two Part B: System Installation Part 1 (D) & (I)

  • Installation Preparation
    • Equipment Location
    • Drawings
    • Installation Checklist
  • Equipment Installation
    • Solar Array
    • Wind Turbines
    • Battery Bank includes ventilation
    • Inverter
  • Metering and control

12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-15:00: Session Twenty Three: System Design Exercises (D) 

15:00-15:20: Break

15:20-16:30: Session Twenty Four:  Continue exercises (D) & (I)

Day Eight

08:00-10:00: Session Twenty Five:  Voltage Drop Exercises (D) & (I)

10:00-10:20: Break

10:20-11:30: Session Twenty Six Part A: System Installation Part II

  • Electrical protection- equipment, cables
  • Separation of ELV and LV
  • Lightning Protection
  • Wiring Diagrams
  • Problems with too many parallel modules re protection
  • Ensuring cables between modules are protected (electrical)
  • Safety Equipment
  • Commissioning
  • System Documentation

11:30-12:00: Session Twenty Six Part B: Exercises on Wiring Diagrams

12:00-13:00: Lunch

13:00-15:00: Session Twenty Seven: Session Twenty Eight:  System Maintenance, Fault Finding (I) 

  • Introduction- Maintenance
  • Maintenance Schedule and Log Books
    • Batteries
    • Solar Array
    • Inverters
    • Regulators
  • System Integrity
    • Maintaining System Integrity
  • Introduction- Fault Finding
  • Fault Finding
    • Batteries
    • Solar Array
    • Inverters
    • Regulators
  • System Integrity
    • Troubleshooting the Whole System

 
15:00-15:20: Break

15:20-16:30: Session Twenty Eight:  Exercises

 

Day Nine

08:00-1:00: Session Twenty Nine:  Connecting up a whole system (I)
                                    Includes practicing stripping cable, mounting equipment etc.

Mid- Morning Break Taken at 10:00

13:00-14:00: Lunch

14:00-16:30: Session Thirty: Presentation on System Installations (I) 

15:00-15:20: Break

Day Ten

 

08:00-16:30: Session Thirty One:  One On One discussion. ½ hour with each attendee. Others are either doing installation
practice or assignment                                  

Mid- Morning Break Taken at 10:00

13:00-14:00: Lunch

15:00-15:20: Break

Day Eleven     Free to Study

Day Twelve

 

08:00-15:00:  Open Book Examination (D) & (I)
 
Mid- Morning Break Taken at 10:00
Lunch- 12:00

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